A molecular phylogeny of genus Lamprotula (Unionidae) in China was constructed based on partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and ND1 gene. The phylogenetic trees constructed by multiple methods (NJ and MP) supported the same topology, in which Lamprotula could be divided into two distinct groups: one group includes Lamprotula tortuosa, L.scripta, L.tientsinensis, L.fibrosa, L.zonata; the other includes L.leai, L.caveata, L.cornuum-lunae, L.rochechouarti. The former group constituted the genus Aculamprotula erected by Wu(1998), the latter belonged to the genus Lamprotula. When the data of other unionids was added, three main branches appeared in the phylogenetic trees, respectively, which were Aculamprotula and other Unioninae genera; Lamprotula and Ambleminae; and Anodonta and Cristaria. Clearly, Aculamprotula belongs to the subfamily Unioninae and Lamprotula should be assigned to the subfamily Ambleminae. The phylogenetic analysis also suggested that Unioninae may be a sister group to Ambleminae, and,furthermore, that both of them are sister groups to Anodontinae. By comparing the ND1 sequences of Lamprotula species with those of Quadrula species originating from North American, we concluded that Lamprotula and Quadrula are closely related and share a common ancestor [Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(6): 1024–1030, 2007].